What is the function of urokinase?
The “Urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator” or simply “urokinase” (uPA) is a key serine protease involved in the conversion of inactive plasminogen into active plasmin, which in turn functions in a range of events of the metastatic cascade (23).
Is urokinase still used?
A shortage of urokinase developed in the United States in 1999 as a result of a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) intervention. Although not banned by the FDA, the manufactur- ers stopped production and marketing of urokinase in the United States.
What is the mechanism of action of urokinase?
Urokinase acts to convert this plasminogen into plasmin and thereby to dissolve the thrombus. The plasmin thus generated within the fibrin clot is not affected by antiplasmins. According to Ambus et al., the plasmin thus activated by urokinase conjugates with anitplasmins and circulates in the blood.
Is urokinase made from urine?
Urokinase is an endogenous activator, which is produced by kidney cells and can be recovered from urine.
When do you use urokinase?
Kinlytic™ (urokinase injection) is indicated in adults:
- For the lysis of acute massive pulmonary emboli, defined as obstruction of blood flow to a lobe or multiple segments.
- For the lysis of pulmonary emboli accompanied by unstable hemodynamics, i.e., failure to maintain blood pressure without supportive measures.
Is urokinase an anticoagulant?
Consequently, the administration of urokinase as a sole anticoagulant results in activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis, and, as a result, induces disseminated intravascular coagulation.
What are the side effects of urokinase?
- Bleeding gums.
- coughing up blood.
- difficulty with breathing or swallowing.
- increased menstrual flow or vaginal bleeding.
- prolonged bleeding from cuts.
What is urokinase made from?
Commercially available urokinase, the low-molecular-weight form (32 400 Da), is produced from cultured human neonatal kidney cells. It is a two-polypeptide chain serine protease, containing 411 amino acid residues4,35: an A chain of 2000 Da is linked by a sulfhydryl bond to a B chain of 30 400 Da.
What is urokinase infusion?
Urokinase is a thrombolytic drug extracted from human urine. It directly converts plasminogen to form plasmin, the proteolytic enzyme responsible for the breakdown of fibrin into small peptide molecules. It is used to eradicate vascular occlusions which can be the result of an embolus or an acute thrombosis.
Is urokinase a tPA?
All plasminogen activators (urokinase, tPA) catalyze the production of plasmin, which in turn leads to the breakdown of the fibrin mesh structure in blood clots.
What is urokinase used to treat?
Urokinase is also used clinically as a thrombolytic agent in the treatment of severe or massive deep venous thrombosis, peripheral arterial occlusive disease, pulmonary embolism, acute myocardial infarction (AMI, heart attack), and occluded dialysis cannulas (catheter clearance).
What is the substrate of urokinase?
Urokinase. Urokinase was originally isolated from human urine, and it is also present in the blood and in the extracellular matrix of many tissues. The primary physiological substrate of this enzyme is plasminogen, which is an inactive form ( zymogen) of the serine protease plasmin. Activation of plasmin triggers a proteolytic cascade that,…
How do you administer urokinase?
Urokinase is injected into a vein through an IV. A healthcare provider will give you this injection. Urokinase is given slowly, usually over a period of 12 hours, using a continuous infusion pump. Your breathing, blood pressure, oxygen levels, and other vital signs will be watched closely while you are receiving urokinase.
What is urokinase plasminogen activator?
Urokinase plasminogen activator and its precursor scu-PA, or pro-UK, are glycoproteins. Urokinase is synthesized by endothelial, renal, and malignant cells. The single-chain pro-UK possesses fibrin-selective plasmin-generating activity.