Why does temperature and salinity vary in estuaries?
Salinity levels in estuaries typically decline in the spring when snowmelt and rain increase the freshwater flow from streams and groundwater. Salinity levels usually rise during the summer when higher temperatures increase levels of evaporation in the estuary.
Does the salt level in estuaries remains constant?
An estuary’s salinity is highest nearest the ocean and decreases as it moves up the river. This type of water circulation might be found in large, shallow estuaries, such as Delaware Bay.
Does temperature vary in estuaries?
At Location A, water temperatures vary by as much as 8 C over a tidal cycle, whereas at Location C they only vary by about 2 C over the same time scale. In the lower estuary, there is also significant variation in water temperature with depth.
How do salinity affect estuaries?
In the summer, estuaries increase in salinity with decreased freshwater inflows and increased evaporation due to higher temperatures causing the system to be classified as a negative estuarine system. Salinity affects the chemical conditions within an estuary, most notably the amount of dissolved oxygen.
What is the temperature in estuaries?
Average temperatures within the estuary generally follow mean air temperature; temperatures range from 0oC in January to a July maximum of 27oC. In the spring and summer, temperature decreases towards the Battery as colder saline water enters with tidal flow.
How does the temperature of water affect the organisms in estuaries?
As water temperature increases, for example, the capacity of water to hold dissolved oxygen becomes lower. Water temperature also influences the rate of plant photosynthesis, the metabolic rates of aquatic organisms, and the sensitivity of organisms to toxic wastes, parasites, and diseases (USEPA, 1997).
What is the temperature of estuaries?
What happens to the salinity and temperature of ocean water as the depth increases?
Typically, the salinity decreases from the surface ocean to deep waters is very small, from about 36 g/L (ppt) at the surface to 35 g/L (ppt) in the deep water, thus there is a very small density decrease with depth given a constant temperature. The salinity of seawater also affects it’s freezing point temperature.
What is the salinity of estuaries?
The mixture of seawater and fresh water in estuaries is called brackish water and its salinity can range from 0.5 to 35 ppt.
How does temperature affect estuary?
It influences biological activity and many chemical variables in the estuary. Temperature plays many roles in the estuary. As water temperature increases, for example, the capacity of water to hold dissolved oxygen becomes lower.
How are salinity and temperature related?
The density of water increases as the salinity increases. The density of seawater (salinity greater than 24.7) increases as temperature decreases at all temperatures above the freezing point.
What happens to salinity as temperature increases?
With increasing temperature, salinity decreases….and conversely, with decreasing temperature, salinity increases.