What is the function of cytochrome P450?
Background: The cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are membrane-bound hemoproteins that play a pivotal role in the detoxification of xenobiotics, cellular metabolism and homeostasis. Induction or inhibition of CYP enzymes is a major mechanism that underlies drug-drug interactions.
What is cytochrome P450 in plants?
Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) catalyze a wide variety of monooxygenation reactions in primary and secondary metabolism in plants. The share of P450 genes in each plant genome is estimated to be up to 1%.
What is the role of cytochrome P450 in biotransformation?
The cytochrome P450 system catalyzes the insertion of an oxygen atom into CH and NH bonds, the epoxidation of π bonds, and the addition of an oxygen atom to the electron pairs of nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus atoms.
What is CYP450 enzyme system and how does it work?
The superfamily of proteins called cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are involved in the synthesis and metabolism of a range of internal and external cellular components. These enzymes have been identified in many organisms, including animals, plants, bacteria, and even in a few viruses.
Where is the cytochrome P450 system located?
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) is a large family of well-conserved integral membrane proteins localized primarily in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where these enzymes metabolize a variety of both endogenous and exogenous compounds.
What is the structure of cytochrome P450?
(i) The P450 is in a low-spin ferric resting form with its heme iron axially co-ordinated by cysteine thiolate and a H2O molecule. (ii) Substrate (fatty acid) binding displaces the axial water and converts the heme iron from low-spin to a high-spin form.
Do plants have cytochromes?
Yes, cytochrome c is found in plants. It is involved in cellular respiration and is found in mitochondria associated with the inner membrane.
What is the general cytochrome P450 oxidation reaction?
Most oxidations of chemicals are catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) enzymes, which generally utilize mixed-function oxidase stoichiometry, utilizing pyridine nucleotides as electron donors: NAD(P)H + O2 + R → NAD(P)+ + RO + H2O (where R is a carbon substrate and RO is an oxidized product).
What sort of reactions do cytochrome P450 enzymes Catalyse?
Cytochrome P450 enzymes primarily catalyze mixed-function oxidation reactions, plus some reductions and rearrangements of oxygenated species, e.g. prostaglandins.