What is the epidemiology of contrast-induced nephropathy?

What is the epidemiology of contrast-induced nephropathy?

What is the epidemiology of contrast-induced nephropathy?

In the general population, the incidence of CIN is estimated to be 1% to 6%. However, the risk may be as high as 50% in some patient subgroups. Patients with diabetes and pre-existing renal impairment are at high risk, and CIN incidence increases in patients with multiple comorbidities.

How does contrast media cause kidney failure?

Contrast drugs have been shown to cause the following changes: renal vasoconstriction, resulting in a rise in intrarenal resistance (decrease in renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate and medullary hypoxia); epithelial vacuolization and dilatation and necrosis of proximal tubules; potentiation of angiotensin …

What increases the risk of contrast nephropathy?

The most common risk factors for developing CIN are (1) a high total dose of CM [72] ; (2) a high osmolality of the CM [13] ; (3) a high ionic content of the CM [33, 73] ; Page 9 Toprak /Cirit Kidney Blood Press Res 2006;29:84–93 92 (4) a high viscosity of the CM [11, 12, 74] ; (5) intra-arte- rial administration of …

What is the mechanism of contrast-induced nephropathy?

The pathophysiology of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is based on three distinct but interacting mechanisms: medullary ischaemia, formation of reactive oxygen species and direct tubular cell toxicity. The contribution of each of these mechanisms to the development of CIN in the individual patient remains unclear.

What is contrast-induced nephropathy explain it in detail?

Definition. CIN is defined as an elevation of serum creatinine (Scr) of more than 25% or ≥0.5 mg/dl (44 μmol/l) from baseline within 48 h after excluding other factors that may cause nephropathy, such as nephrotoxins, hypotension, urinary obstruction, or atheromatous emboli.

What is contrast-induced nephropathy?

Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a serious complication of angiographic procedures resulting from the administration of contrast media (CM). It is the third most common cause of hospital acquired acute renal injury and represents about 12% of the cases.

What does iodine do to the kidneys?

Excessive alcohol use can also cause kidney problems. Serious kidney damage can be caused by the iodine-containing “dyes” that doctors use to enhance the quality of medical scans. These dyes are called contrast agents, and are usually given intravenously before a CT scan, angiogram or other test.

What is the etiology of contrast induced nephropathy?

What is contrast induced nephropathy?

What happens in contrast-induced nephropathy?

Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is defined as the impairment of kidney function—measured as either a 25% increase in serum creatinine (SCr) from baseline or a 0.5 mg/dL (44 µmol/L) increase in absolute SCr value—within 48-72 hours after intravenous contrast administration.

Is contrast-induced nephropathy ATN?

Several factors can be responsible for contrast-induced acute tubular necrosis (ATN); however, patient and procedure-related factors play the lead role in determining the development of contrast-induced nephropathy. There is no definitive treatment and hydration remains the mainstay preventive strategy.