How will you prepare acetanilide?
Acetanilide is prepared from aniline when it reacts with acetic anhydride/glacial acetic acid in the presence of zinc dust. A mixture of aniline, glacial acetic acid, acetic anhydride and zinc dust is refluxed under anhydrous condition and then poured the mixture into ice cold water to get acetic anhydride precipitate.
What is the toxicity of acetanilide?
Acute Toxicity: Oral: 800 mg/kg Oral LD50 Rat Chronic Toxicity: No additional information. Corrosion Irritation: No additional information. Sensitization: Irritation: Irritating to eyes and skin.
What health concern is associated with aniline impurities in acetanilide?
Health Concerns The problem with aniline being present as an impurity is that aniline is a carcinogen (cancer-causing agent). So although your headache may get better, you run the risk of contaminating yourself with a cancer-causing compound, which is of much greater concern.
What are the uses of acetanilide and its adverse effects?
acetanilide, synthetic organic compound introduced in therapy in 1886 as a fever-reducing drug. Its effectiveness in relieving pain was discovered soon thereafter, and it was used as an alternative to aspirin for many years in treating such common complaints as headache, menstrual cramps, and rheumatism.
What is the purpose of acetanilide in the preparation?
Acetanilide is used as an inhibitor of hydrogen peroxide decomposition and is used to stabilize cellulose ester varnishes. It has also found uses in the intermediation in rubber accelerator synthesis, dyes and dye intermediate synthesis, and camphor synthesis.
What is the purpose of using hydrochloric acid in preparation of acetanilide?
HCl acid is added to solubilize aniline at the beginning since aniline is water-insoluble, so we add HCl to get anilinium chloride which is water-soluble. HCl is used to activate acetic anhydride since there is no reaction between aniline and acetic anhydride.
What is the most common toxicity associated with acetanilide use?
Thus, while Acetanilide and paracetamol both are associated with increased risk for liver and kidney damage, Acetanilide is considered to be more toxic by also causing methemoglobinemia.
How is acetanilide poisoning treated?
Gently wash all affected skin areas thoroughly with soap and water. If symptoms such as redness or irritation develop, IMMEDIATELY call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital for treatment. INHALATION: IMMEDIATELY leave the contaminated area; take deep breaths of fresh air.
What are the chemical hazards of aniline?
Aniline is irritating to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. Effects can result from all routes of exposure. Aniline induces methemoglobinemia, which impairs the delivery of oxygen to tissues. Aniline may also cause the destruction of red blood cells, which manifests as acute or delayed hemolytic anemia.
What are the undesirable effects of acetanilide that make it definitely toxic?
What is the role of acetic acid in preparation of acetanilide product from aniline?
Aniline or phenylamine is a primary amine and basic in nature. Acetic anhydride, an anhydride of acetic acid, acts as a source of acyl group here . Aniline reacts with acetic anhydride to form Acetanilide by nucleophilic substitution reaction and the reaction is called acetylation.
Why is acetanilide banned?
It was introduced into the pharmaceutical market in 1887. However, it was withdrawn in 1983 in the United States due to unacceptable levels of interstitial nephritis in patients and potential risks of tumorigenicity. Like in the United States, most Western countries did not ban phenacetin from marketing until 1983.