## How is wave port defined in HFSS?

Wave port represents the surface through which a signal enters or exits the geometry. Hence 2 ports are required to be defined. HFSS assumes that each wave port you define is connected to a semi-infinitely long waveguide that has the same cross-section and material properties as the port.

## What is the difference between lumped port and wave port in HFSS?

waveports can only be applied to external boundary, whereas lumped ports can be applied to both external and internal. But de-embeding is only possible in wave ports. The results of waveports and lumped are never going to be the same .

**How do I assign a lumped port?**

To assign a lumped port to a cylindrical structure, you should select a set of circumferential boundaries that lie between conducting boundaries. The lumped port is applicable on a small segment of a conductive cylindrical structure or a metallized via between a signal path (microstrip line) and a bottom ground plane.

### What is Floquet port?

The Floquet port is closely related to a Wave port in that a set of modes (“Floquet modes”) represents the fields on the port boundary. Fundamentally, Floquet modes are plane waves with propagation direction set by the frequency, phasing, and geometry of the periodic structure.

### What is a lumped port?

A Uniform lumped port applies a constant electric field between the metallic electrodes. A Coaxial lumped port applies a radial electric field between two concentric circular metallic boundaries. For these two cases, the dimension of the port is computed automatically by analyzing the geometry.

**What is excitation in HFSS?**

HFSS defines a variety of excitations, including Wave Port/Lumped Port/Floquet Port/Incident Wave/Voltage Source / Current Source/ Magnetic Bias.

#### What is Floquet port in HFSS?

Floquet Ports in HFSS. The Floquet port in HFSS is used exclusively with planar-peri- odic structures. Chief examples are planar phased arrays and frequency selective surfaces when these may be idealized as infinitely large. The analysis of the infinite structure is then accomplished by analyzing a unit cell.

#### Why is Hfss used?

HFSS captures and simulates objects in 3D, accounting for materials composition and shapes/geometries of each object. HFSS is one of several commercial tools used for antenna design, and the design of complex radio frequency electronic circuit elements including filters, transmission lines, and packaging.

**What is PEC in HFSS?**

The Perfect Electric Conductor or PEC Boundary is the HFSS default boundary that is applied to all outer faces of the solution space. It represents a lossless perfect conductor. This default boundary creates a closed model.

## What is a Floquet system?

Floquet theory is a branch of the theory of ordinary differential equations relating to the class of solutions to periodic linear differential equations of the form. with a piecewise continuous periodic function with period. and defines the state of the stability of solutions.